wiki:cpmv

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 wiki:cpmv [2015/11/11 11:02]asa wiki:cpmv [2016/08/02 14:47] Line 1: Line 1: - ==== Moving and copying files and directories (chapter 4) ==== - - First, go into the ''​cs580''​ directory we created last time. - Before we start moving and copying files we should create one.  To do that we will use the command-line text editor ''​nano'',​ which is standard on any Linux/Unix system. - Let's create a new file called ''​my_new_file.txt'':​ - - - $nano my_new_file.txt - ​ - Type some stuff and then save the file and exit the program. - - We can view the contents of the file without having to invoke the editor by using the ''​more''​ or ''​less''​ commands: - -$ more my_new_file.txt - ​ - Note that ''​less''​ is more powerful than ''​more''​ and has a few additional features. - - Now, to demonstrate why it's not a good idea to use spaces in file names, try the following: - - - $nano my new file.txt - ​ - And type ctrl-x and observe what happens. - - Today we are going to use the following commands: - - * **cp** - copy files and directories - * **mv** - move/rename files and directories - * **mkdir** - create a directory - * **rmdir** - remove an empty directory - * **rm** - remove files/​directories - - == Copying files == - - We already started using mkdir and rmdir, so we will focus on the three others. ​ And let's start with cp. There are two forms for the cp command: - - - cp source_file target_file - cp source_file ... target_directory - ​ - - In the first form, cp copies the contents of the source_file to the target_file. - For example: - -$ cp my_new_file.txt another_new_file.txt - ​ - or - - $cp my_new_file.txt ../​yet_another_new_file.txt - ​ - which copies the file under a new name into the parent directory of your current working directory. - - The second form of cp copies each each - source_file to the destination target_directory. ​ - The names of the files themselves are not changed. ​ - If cp detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail. - Now let's see some examples: - -$ cp my_new_file.txt /home/asa - ​ - which can also be written as ''​cp my_new_file.txt ~''​. - - You can also copy a file to the current working directory, abbreviated as ''​.'':​ - - $cp ../​yet_another_new_file.txt . - ​ - - Using this form of the command you can copy multiple files at the same time: - -$ cp my_new_file.txt another_new_file.txt /home/asa - ​ - - cp has a lot of options. ​ Let's look at one of them - the ''​-R''​ option. ​ Try the following: ​ in your home directory type the command - - $cp -R cs580 copy_of_cs580 - ​ - What did it do? - - - == Removing files/​directories == - - Time to clean up a bit ... Let's remove the files from the ''​copy_of_cs580''​ directory and the directory itself. ​ We'll do that with the ''​rm''​ command. ​ You can remove individual files and then the directory itself: - -$ rm copy_of_cs580/​my_new_file.txt - $rmdir copy_of_cs580 - ​ - or you can use the ''​-R''​ option of rm: - -$ rm -R copy_of_cs580 - ​ - Be very careful with "​rm"​. ​ Linux does not have a way of undoing its action. - - === Renaming/​moving files/​directories === - - Like the cp command, the mv command has two general forms: - - - mv source target - mv source ... directory - ​ - Let's look at an example of the first one: - - $mv my_new_file.txt new_file.txt - ​ - And the second one: - -$ mv new_file .. - ​ - The first one changes the name of the file, while the second moves the file to a different directory. - - While you can do all these things quite easily with a graphical file manager, doing it from the command line provides extra flexibility. - This flexibility comes from the use of wildcards. - - === Wildcards === - - Wildcards enable you to select multiple files/​directories at once. - The most commonly used wildcard is the ''​*'',​ which matches any characters. - So, if we would like to see all the names of all files which end with ''​.txt''​ we would issue the following ls command: - - $ls *.txt - ​ - and - -$ ls m*.txt - ​ - will list all files whose names begin with ''​m''​ and end with ''​.txt''​. - - Wildcards can be used in conjunction with any of the commands we looked at. - For example: - - \$ cp directory1/​* directory2 - ​ - will copy all the files from ''​directory1''​ to ''​directory2''​. - - There are many more wild cards that are recognized. ​ For example ''?''​ matches a single character, so ''​data???''​ will match file names that start with data and are followed by any three characters. ​ Chapter 4 of the book provides more information on this topic. - - Be especially careful when using wildcards with ''​rm'':​ first use the ''​ls''​ command with the wildcard to verify which files will be affected. - Consider for example the following command: - - rm * .html - ​ - It will remove all your files (and then complain that the file .html does not exist).
wiki/cpmv.txt · Last modified: 2016/08/02 14:47 (external edit)