In this lab, we will look at some examples of Template Specialization. The files are in ~cs253/Labs/TemplateSpecialization.
In 1.cc, we have a program that defines
BarGraph template. Here’s how to use it:
BarGraph<int> alpha; alpha += 12; alpha += 6; alpha += 4; alpha += 6; alpha.dump();
This create a BarGraph of integers, uses it to count four integers, and then produce this bar graph:
4 * 6 ** 12 *
This template has several features worth discussion:
mapto count the elements as they come in. The key of the map is the templated type
int, in this case. The value of the map is an
unsigned int. Why
+=to “add” items to the bar graph. Note that the return type of
+=suppposed to return a reference to
*this? Does it have to?
stringtemporary to print a number of stars. That is,
string(23, '*')calls the
stringctor to creates a temporary unnamed
stringthat contains 23 asterisks.
The benefit of a template is its generality.
BarGraph should work
for any type, as long as it is (think “Duck Typing”):
BarGraph works for lots of types, but it’s not the most
efficient solution for all types. It uses a
map, which is a
general solution, but that generality is not always needed.
Consider 2.cc, which introduces
template specialization. It features a hand-written version
BarGraph<bool>. This is a version of
specially for counting booleans. Of course, the general version
BarGraph still exists, so it works for all other types, too.
maplookup, and doesn’t have to iterate through the possible values, since there are only
Of course, it’s possible that g++’s implemention of
map has a
> that is smaller &
faster in just that way. Who knows?
3.cc, and modify that from now on.
<<so that you can insert a
BarGraphobject into an
BarGraph<char>that uses more efficient storage than a
map. How can you portably determine the range of possible values for a
char? (Try the
numeric_limitsclass, provided by <
graph += "foo"for a
BarGraph<char>. This should be equivalent to:
graph += 'f'; graph += 'o'; graph += 'o';